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Straw silage

 

Forage silage corn generally refers to the use fresh corn stover as feed corn, can be grown several times a year. Which is characterized by rapid growth in a short time you can get more leaf production. Corn silage in the flowering stage, the aerial parts of corn harvested, chopped and stored in silage harm or silage tower, you can do a long time with cows. Cattle feed. In production, the requirements of silage corn stalks, leaves, spike high yield, lodging resistance, high nutritional value, easy to digest and utilize. Corn silage forage in the cultivation of corn silage than technically demanding, in variety matching tall plants generally require the use of high yield, lodging resistance of late-maturing varieties. In the sowing, the harvest has to be considered good climatic conditions, in order to facilitate silage. Corn silage is necessary to increase planting density, but also to prevent lodging, lodging because not only reduces yield, but not for mechanical harvesting. Determination of harvest, the highest yield per unit area to obtain the best benefit of keeping the principle. Silage techniques to master, silo site to choose the terrain is dry, heavy clay soil, groundwater low places. Silage harm must be sealed airtight, smooth vertical wall cellar, so easy after storage of silage compaction decline. Seepage pit wall is not, otherwise it would silage spoilage. Must make silage sealed storage, so as to take advantage of anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, so that cavities acidity increase, reaching around 4.0 PH value, so that other microbes stop breeding. Meanwhile, the lactic acid bacteria itself will cause massive accumulation of lactic acid, the acidity caused by the rising and gradually cease their activities, so that the long-term preservation of silage without deterioration. Furthermore, after malolactic fermentation feed, but also improve the nutritional value and is of high quality cattle feed.

(A) economic value

Forage silage corn cows, beef cattle to provide green fodder, the cattle industry is the indispensable basis for one feed. Beef industry in recent years has been greatly developed, to provide a large number of domestic and foreign markets beef, many places became famous cattle County. Milk industry is recognized saving food, economic and efficient industry, is a "vegetable basket project." Milk or feed conversion yield the highest rates of nutrients than food production can be increased by 2 to 3 times of nutrients yields were much less in the current national conditions, the development of the dairy industry to promote forage silage corn, is having a far-reaching career. 80 years ago our country does not forage maize varieties, mostly with the production of varieties of grain forage production, and thus low yields, poor quality. Until 1985 was the first time validation of our breeding "Beijing more No. 1" of new varieties of forage maize, and then in 1989 another validation of the "Credo No. 4" and a number of new varieties. Such forage silage maize production has been significantly improved, forage breeding of new varieties of corn silage is also a good start. In Europe, North America and other countries, people attach great importance to the production of forage maize silage, forage silage maize area accounted for a large proportion, but they make more use of big spike, a single stalk, holding greenness strong varieties, bred so much more than stalk Ear forage silage maize varieties are our specialty.

(Two) growth characteristics

First, higher biomass

Currently part of the promotion of the production of forage maize varieties, fresh biomass yield of up to 4000 kg / mu ~ 7000 kg / acre, compared with normal corn 1000 kg / mu to 3000 kg / mu.

Second, good quality forage

Forage silage corn varieties, with high holding green, leafy area, straw lignin content is low, palatability, and other characteristics.

Third, the rapid growth

Compared with ordinary corn, forage maize varieties generally have a higher growth potential.

  青飼青貯玉米一般是指用鮮嫩的玉米莖葉做飼料的玉米,一年可以種植多次。其特點是生長迅速,在短時間內可以獲得較多的莖葉產量。青貯玉米是在乳熟后期,將玉米的地上部分收割、切碎并貯藏于青貯害或青貯塔中,可以長時間用做奶牛。肉牛飼料。在生產上,要求青貯玉米的莖、葉、穗產量高,抗倒伏,營養價值高,并易于消化利用。青貯玉米在栽培技術上比青飼青貯玉米要求高,在品種選配上一般要求采用植株高大產量高、抗倒抗病的晚熟品種。在播種期上,要考慮收割時具有好的氣候條件,以利于青貯。青貯玉米既要增加種植密度,又要防止倒伏,因為倒伏不僅降低產量,而且無法進行機械收割。收獲期的確定,要以單位面積產量最高、獲得的飼養效益最佳為原則。青貯的技術要掌握好,青貯窖址要選在地勢干燥、土質粘重、地下水位低的地方。青貯害要密封不透氣,窖的內壁平滑垂直,這樣便于貯后青貯飼料的壓實下降。窖壁不能滲水,否則會使青貯飼料腐敗變質。一定要使青貯飼料密封貯藏,這樣才能利用乳酸菌的厭氧發酵,產生乳酸,使窖內酸度增加,達到PH值4.0左右,從而使其他微生物停止繁殖。同時,乳酸菌本身也會因乳酸的大量積累,而造成酸度不斷上升并逐步停止活動,從而使青貯飼料可以長期保存而不會變質。再者,經過乳酸發酵的飼料,還提高了營養價值,是養牛的優質飼料。

   (一)經濟價值

   青飼青貯玉米為奶牛、肉牛提供青飼料,是養牛業不可缺少的基礎飼料之一。最近幾年肉牛業有了很大的發展,向國內外市場提供了大量的牛肉,很多地方成了有名的養牛縣。牛奶業是公認的節糧、經濟、高效的產業,屬“菜籃子工程”。牛奶還是飼料轉化率最高的營養物質產量,比生產糧食能增加2倍~3倍的營養物質產量,在目前人多地少的國情下,發展奶牛業,推廣青飼青貯玉米,是一件具有深遠意義的事業。80年代前我國沒有青飼型玉米品種,生產上大都用糧食品種生產青飼,因而產量低,質量差。直到1985年我國才首次審定了我們選育的“京多1號”青飼型玉米新品種,接著在1989年又審定了“科多4號”等一批新品種。這樣青飼青貯玉米的生產有了明顯的改觀,青飼青貯玉米的新品種選育也有了良好開端。在歐洲、北美等國家,人們很重視青飼青貯玉米的生產,青飼青貯玉米面積占很大比例,但他們多利用大穗、單稈、持綠度強的品種,因此選育多稈多穗青飼青貯玉米品種是我國的特色。

   (二)生育特點

   一、生物產量高

   目前生產中推廣的部分青飼玉米品種,鮮生物產量可達4000公斤/畝~7000 公斤/畝,較普通玉米高1000公斤/畝~3000公斤/畝。

   二、飼用品質好

   青飼青貯玉米品種,具有持綠度高,綠葉面積大,秸稈木質素含量低,適口性強等特點。

   三、生長迅速

與普通玉米相比,青飼玉米品種一般都具有較高的生長勢。

 

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